Summer’22: State Of The (Ticketing) Market

A common discussion amongst attendees, presenters and delegates at the recent STAR AGM ( and then the 10th anniversary Ticketing Business Forum ( was how the various ticketing industry congloms, service providers and sector support agencies were going to successfully emerge from the pandemic, and implement business strategies in an attempt to get themselves back to pre-coronavirus trading levels, and enterprise valuations.

STAR AGM: 30th June 2022
Ticketing Business Forum: 6-8th July 2022


2019, that ‘golden era’ when the chief concerns for operators within the ticketing sector was the competition for prospective client contracts; the ongoing commodification of ticketing technology (with clients and consumers seemingly always demanding more functionality, features, and services for static-per-unit revenues); creeping sector consolidation; and the economic authority of Rights Owners (whether Artists, Attractions, Theatrical Producers or Sport Franchises etc.) bullying ever-higher commissions, and/or rebates, is viewed by many as their key short-term future business objective i.e., to ‘go back’, or to re-establish a new ‘normal’.


Unfortunately, one clear lesson the pandemic revealed was how little control the ticketing industry has over its own collective well-being.

As ticketing is essentially a supply-side led sector – where ticketing platforms, apps and agencies all attempt to incentivise inventory supply, in order to then earn a margin off the original ticket face value and/or inventory volumes, by delivering event manifest management, experiential attendee insight and/or incremental retail, marketing & distribution – it could not survive without those attractions, events, experiences and spectacle.

Customer Service(s)

Whilst there were few new events during the pandemic, the industry was kept busy implementing PaaS (Postponement-as-a-Strategy) or CTD (Convert-to-Donation) where customers holding tickets for events were not granted a full refund for non-delivery but were instead directed to retain their FOMO-tokens and wait, then wait a little longer, or to consider donating their original purchase to the ‘worthy’ arts organisation rather than collect a refund which arguably they were morally, if not contractually due.

At best consumers who had previously bought tickets for major events, festivals, and tours in 2019 are still expectedly waiting for the once, twice, three-times delayed performances finally occurring in 2022, or even 2023. Meanwhile, some promoters crow about pent-up demand and highest ever seasonal attendances, neatly ignoring the impact of event congestion i.e., three years’ worth of events compacted into twelve months.


And as if COVID-19 and the ongoing festering Omicron variants weren’t bad enough, now live entertainment and the ticketing industry faces a set of new globally deteriorating macro-economic and cultural conditions: British Brexit-fuelled stagflation and international inflation driving up event costs alongside a tightening squeeze on consumer disposable income; the ongoing war in Ukraine; and the long-Covid cultural impact of audiences retrained away from attending live events i.e., those who had spent the last couple of years sitting on their sofas, consuming supermarket-priced alcohol with door-delivery fast food, watching endless streams of the latest long-form televisual series, subtitled movies, in-studio operatic performances with up-close n’personal musician profiles; or, for the more adventurous masked & immersive walk-throughs of brush-stroked name-your-favourite 20th Century artist.

Old Skool Thinking

The live entertainment sector has responded to the Covid-interregnum and the impending recession by attempting to clawback the ‘lost’ years of revenues with the top-loading of premium ticket prices, the widescale implementation of yield-management strategies and the drip-feeding of high-demand, low-supply inventory to maximise prices for VIP & experiential bundles & packages.

Alongside which, rather than back-fill with a full complement of experienced operational staff, companies have opted to prioritise selective client support i.e., ‘more with less’, and the wholesale externalising of formerly in-house functions including event concierge and production staff, or downsizing customer services with the increased utilisation of post-your-query automation (where the AI technology calculatingly frustrates rather resolves, with the resulting breakage dropping to the bottom line), and the growing use of (white-label) agencies, freelancers, and zero-hours contracts – causing one industry commentator to state: ‘Leaner, dumber and more dependent on others’.

Status Quo Bias

So still feeling its way back, the ticketing industry instinctively reaches for what it knows, i.e., tried-and-trusted / more-of-the-same, but that’s arguably not going to be enough.

The world has moved on. The past is a place, but we’re not there anymore.

Ticketing 3.0*

[*Where Ticketing 1.0 was The Box Office & Seat, Row, Block. Ticketing 2.0 – The Internet, the PC, & the Smartphone. And, Ticketing 3.0 – Digital Experiential Connected-Commerce]

The distressed nature of the traditional ticketing industry following almost two years of zero, or at best low revenues, leaves many commodified service providers unable to easily bounce-back, having exhausted their cash reserves, typically unsuccessful in various government grant applications and forced to utilise furloughs and then redundancies to survive.

So, we shouldn’t expect many sector incumbents to be able to move forward with confidence, or with easy access to capital, or still retaining a skilled & experienced workforce, and/or the historical levels of commercial creativity.

Rather, it is more likely that there will be a number of new entrants, plausibly from the vibrant and highly capitalised e-tailing and connect-to-consumer technology service providers, who typically all experienced a good-pandemic, and whom operate in areas adjacent to event ticketing and may seek to disrupt future market opportunities.

Its Digital Baby!

In the near-future i.e., now, Ticketing 3.0 is simply part of the digital SpectacleCommerceTechnology interface.

Ticketing 3.0: Spectacle – Commerce – Technology

Live entertainment i.e. Spectacle (with apologies to Guy Debord) is increasingly digital by nature (AR & immersive experiences, or Jumbotron & LED screens relaying the (distant) stage performance, Livestreaming & VOD, Metaverse, or Swedish popstars digitally re-imaging 1977 in a ‘virtual concert residency’); Commerce & Technology solutions are also enabling the growing ‘creator economy’ ($104.2Bn annually and counting!) to utilise new digital media formats with celebrity influencers, brand partners & creators disrupting the traditional entertainment structure ‘Artist > Management > Promoter > Venue > Audience’ to become ‘Creator/Influencer > Platform > Consumers’ with the overwhelming majority of content creators deriving little monetary gain for their creations, and with most of the benefits retained by the platforms – so what’s not to like?

Further tickets themselves are now almost entirely digital, with Blockchain, NFT & Web3 evangelists for decentralised databases, rules-based sales protocols, unique digital assets & artworks, or advocates for cryptocurrencies all gleefully claiming ownership of digital ticketing, whilst also aiming to subvert the traditional live entertainment business relationships by empowering the apparently disenfranchised Artists & Audience. But these solutions are not necessarily the only way to secure tickets.

Rather Ticketing 3.0 will be increasingly reliant on digital commerce platforms and technologies i.e., mobile-based ticketing and accreditation secured by identity verification including health status (e.g., COVID-19 test results, proof-of-vaccination); contactless payments & wallets; API’s enabling the bunding of tickets with 3rd Party products e.g., Insurance, F&B, Merchandise, Travel & Accommodation etc. and ‘tickets’ that enable real-time messaging from event organisers & Rights Owners to end-consumers regarding venue access, traffic flows & queue-avoidance, changes in event line-ups, F&B flash sales or loyalty-based merchandising offers.

Further, the new Commerce & Technology solutions that will be adopted are already typically consumer-orientated platforms that encompass activities, events, games, messaging & merchandise within a slick UI that ‘intuitively’ identifies the user, incorporates personalised search & recommendations, with seamless integration of in-house content & 3rd Party inventory. They are typically already global mass market players with a minimum of 300M+ monthly active users**, with deep access to capital and are oft-valued as a multiple of future earnings, and who will fundamentally impact the event ticketing experience even if they never take any direct ownership stake.

So, welcome to summer ’22 and the future of ticketing.

(**Name the usual tech suspects: Apple, Meta (Inc. Instagram & WhatsApp), Microsoft (Inc. LinkedIn & Skype), Only Fans, Patreon, Spotify, Substack, Tencent (Inc. WeChat), TikTok, Twitter, YouTube etc.)


.@T_J_Chambers Op-Ed: Strategic Thoughts To 2025+

Noted within The Ticketing Business newsletter:

With thanks to Ian Nuttall, Angelina Tennino, Lizzie Etherington and the entire The Ticketing Business ( team for the opportunity to comment.

Also deep gratitude for all the Ticketing Business Forums ( with their invaluable social & commercial networking, and sector intelligence-gathering.

And lastly, thanks for the 500 editions (and counting) of the newsletter.


In Other News: June’21 (4/5) Live Music & The Pandemic


In early March 2020, with many international governments slow to react to initial levels of COVID-19 infections and seemingly paralysed by uncertainty as to what action, if any to take, a growing number of events cancelled or postponed: SXSW cancelled for the first time in 34 years; Ultra Music Festival In Miami cancelled; Coachella & Stagecoach festivals postponed and initially rescheduled to October 2020; BBC Radio1 cancelled its ‘Big Weekend’ music festival originally scheduled for May; and then the 50th anniversary of Glastonbury Festival was cancelled as a result of the threat of the developing pandemic.

The world’s major live-entertainment companies, combined to announce the formation of an industry task force which included Live Nation CEO and President Michael Rapino, AEG President and CEO Dan Beckerman, AEG Presents Chairman and CEO Jay Marciano, Creative Artists Agency Managing Partner and Head of the Music Division Rob Light, William Morris Endeavor Partner and Head of Music Marc Geiger, Paradigm talent agency founder and Chairman Sam Gores, Paradigm Head of Global Music Marty Diamond and United Talent Agency Global Head of Music David Zedeck. 

Together they confirmed the suspension of concerts, festivals and tours, initially until the end of that month ( as a precautionary effort ‘in the best interest of artists, fans, staff, and the global community’.

On the 20th March the UK Prime Minister then ordered all cafes, pubs and restaurants to close except for take-away food, whilst all the UK’s nightclubs, theatres, cinemas, gyms and leisure centres were told to close ‘as soon as they reasonably can’.

At that stage there was little appreciation of the likely impact of the pandemic in terms of the eventual tremendous loss of life, societal lockdowns, evolving health protocols and the long COVID-19 interregnum that would restrict any opportunity to re-embrace the spectacle of live music.


In the market research report ‘Music in the Air: The Show Must Go On’ (Goldman Sachs, Equity Research Report, May 14th 2020) Goldman Sachs forecast that the COVID-19 impact to the global live music sector would be an approximate 75 percent downturn in revenues and declared that 2020 would be a ‘lost year’ for the industry.

 Global Live Music Market 2007 (Actual) – 2030 (Estimate)

© Goldman Sachs 2020

The report further noted that whilst live music had been one of the most resilient parts of the music industry for the last two decades, the nature of the crisis meant there was considerable uncertainty over the timing of any return and what that may look like.

Further commentary included the observation that following any relaunch for the initial period revenue per individual event would be lower, with an assumption of only 65% of that previously achieved in 2019. This performance was ‘impacted by potential caps on audience size/density, travel restrictions and general economic weakness weighing on consumers’ discretionary spend’.

More confidently Goldman Sachs did forecast that the long-term growth outlook for live music was intact as it was unclear as to whether livestreaming would replace the live experience. Further the ‘millennial experiential economy’ would continue to drive event demand and sponsorship revenues would return (because of the younger demographic’s continued attraction to live music), and that Artists would remain largely dependent upon touring to supplement their income.

The reality of COVID-19’s actual impact to the industry quickly became apparent within the various Quarterly Reports by public companies operating in the international live music sector, despite language designed to assure investors and the wider market:

Live Nation Entertainment (Live Nation Entertainment Reports Second Quarter 2020 Results – 05.08.20);

Eventbrite (Eventbrite Reports Second Quarter 2020 Financial Results – 06.08.20);

Madison Square Garden Entertainment (Madison Square Garden Entertainment Corp. Reports Fourth Quarter & Fiscal 2020 Results –’20-Release-Final-8-14-20.pdf 14.08.20);

CTS Eventim (CTS EVENTIM achieves balanced EBITDA in HY1/2020, in the midst of the coronavirus crisis and thanks to cost-cutting and efficiency-boosting measures – 20.08.20); and,

DEAG Deutsche Entertainment AG (DEAG with nearly balanced EBITDA in first half of 2020 despite the COVID-19 crisis – 28.08.20).


Then in September 2020 PwC issued its ‘Global Entertainment & Media Outlook 2020-2024 report which stated that revenues generated by live music ticket sales and sponsorships had already fallen 64% in 2020 with approximately US$18Bn having been wiped off the value of the international concert industry.

Unfortunately, for many in the live music sector the actual decline experienced was substantially worse.

But without a centralised UK live music reporting platform, it is difficult to accurately detail the specific COVID-19 impact to revenues, ongoing employment, organisations that utilised furloughs and/or redundancies, internships and apprenticeships lost due to the lockdown, individuals who may not have qualified for any of the various government business support schemes and/or claims for Universal Credit, or the number of companies that may have applied for loans but fell into financial administration.

However, the August 2020 ONS update (Coronavirus and the economic impacts on the UK: reported that the arts, entertainment and recreation industry (albeit not an exact match for the live industry but the most similar ONS category) had the largest proportion of the workforce furloughed, at 51 percent (compared with 13 percent across all industries).  Additionally, 23 percent of the arts, entertainment and recreation businesses reported their risk of insolvency was severe to moderate (compared with 11 percent across all industries), and also reported the highest percentage of businesses indicating that footfall had decreased, at 76 percent when compared with normal expectations for this time of year.

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation Industry – Risk of Insolvency

© ONS ‘Coronavirus and the economic impacts on the UK’ (27 August 2020)

In addition to staff directly employed across the live music industry there are many freelancers, self-employed and zero-hours employees working across the broader ecosystem of the sector.

For example, for any event production, there is an army of crew who work on site in specialist roles, such as sound engineers, riggers, and lighting engineers. These technical experts are usually freelancers, working job-to-job, or employed week-to-week. 

Additionally, at any event there are also large numbers of less specialised support staff who work as stewards, concierge, bar staff and more.

Lastly, there are also highly specialised professionals, including lawyers, accountants, insurers, graphic designers, social media & marketing, as well as press & PR agencies, who typically work on a retainer contract basis, whom will all have experienced a substantive decline in demand for their services from the live music industry.

Their collective situation worsened during 2020 with complete shutdowns triggered across all international markets.

Subsequently two of the largest public companies operating in the global live sector, reported at the end of the year falls in annual revenues substantially worse than previously estimated, with Live Nation revealing an 84% decline (, whilst CTS Eventim confirmed ( an 82.2% fall.

Additionally, the Carey & Chambers report for LIVE ‘UK Live Music: At A Cliff Edge’ ( identified an annual revenue fall of 81% for the UK sector when compared with the previous year, with zero revenues for many operators since March 2020.


Across the global live music sector 2020 revenues therefore fell from the estimated $28Bn (2019) to little more than $5Bn with huge levels of ‘debt’ to consumers in the form of tickets acquired for postponed events. And 2021 did not bring any immediate relief.

Not in Q1.

And then not with any scale or consistency across many international territories (with the exception of Australasia) in Q2.

There was increasingly a sector-wide realisation that any relaunch, whenever it would occur, was beyond the direct control of the industry and so the lobbying of civic and national governments, funding agencies and regulators accelerated.

The key issues were the ongoing fiscal collapse of live event partners (at all levels) caused by a non-existent cashflow directly linked to the legal inability to re-open; the timing and scale of various vaccination programmes and transmission of COVID-19 variants; the limitations on event capacities due to social-distancing measures with associated P&L impact; and event-specific matters such as event insurance (including pandemic-related cancellation, artist & public liability), the logistics of equipment and personnel, improved event hygiene protocols, and the hoped-for consumer desire to return to mass-spectator activities.

Locally, campaigning by the AIF, LIVE, MVT, NTIA and UK Music (amongst others) with the apparent support of the Commons DCMS Select Committee, were however faced by a UK Government that felt unable (or unwilling?) to lend specific sector support.

And then the June 21st timetable for relaxation of the social-distancing restrictions on events, was threatened with a further delay.

As noted by Mark Davyd (MVT) ‘It’s not ‘just 1 more month’. It’s 16 months, not 15 months, of closure. 7% more debt.‘ (


To be continued …

In Other News: June’21 (1/5) ‘Bread & Circuses’

In Other News: June’21 (2/5) ‘How Big Was Big?’

In Other News: June’21 (3/5) Growth, Consolidation & Hubris


In Other News: June’21 (3/5) Growth, Consolidation & Hubris

The largest single operator within the live music industry is Live Nation, formed in 2005 following its spin-off from Clear Channel Entertainment, and since its subsequent merger with Ticketmaster in 2010 (described at the time by The Economist as ‘a union of pariahs’ –, the acquisitive conglomerate has experienced a dramatic increase in concert revenues, audience and managed events.

In its last Pre-Coronavirus Annual Report ( Live Nation stated ‘we are the largest producer of live music concerts in the world …. connecting nearly 98 million fans to more than 40,000 events for over 5,000 artists in 2019.’

The precise market share that Live Nation and Ticketmaster has developed in North America and elsewhere varies, primarily due to an internal or external perspective, from a competitive 30% to an aggressive and monopolistic 70%, and then some.

Anti-trust scrutiny and/or competition regulation is normally triggered by an agreed definition of market with accurate measurement of its leading operators, something that the live music industry (or regulators) has seemingly been unable to calculate with no agreed clarity regarding who are (like-for-like) sector competitors, clear definition of GTV, revenues, or actual ticket sales etc. and with little apparent desire for such sector transparency.

Nevertheless, in July 2020 Live Nation agreed with the DOJ to extend for a further five years, various anti-trust undertakings relating to the 2010 merger with Ticketmaster (‘Final Judgement’ – and ‘to abide by certain behavioural remedies and to provide periodic reports to the DOJ about our compliance’ for a further five years (

The reason for this extension was, according to Assistant Attorney General Makan Delrahim of the Justice Department’s Antitrust Division, Live Nation apparently ‘broke the promises they made to the court and to the American People’ (

Additionally, in the UK Live Nation is understood to control approximately 25% of all music festivals above 5,000 capacity with the Association of Independent Festivals (AIF) amongst others calling for an investigation from the Competition & Markets Authority (

Live Nation Entertainment’s concert revenues 2008-19 (US $Bn)

© Statista / Live Nation

However, Live Nation within its SEC filings and other public pronouncements continues to declare that competition in the live entertainment industry is intense. It further stresses that it competes primarily on the ability to deliver quality music events, sell tickets, and provide enhanced fan and artist experiences, arguing that its track record, reputation, and fiscal stability are key strengths. (Not withstanding the substantive addtional $1.2Bn debt taken on to weather the COVID-19 crisis.)

Despite the ‘enviable market share’, especially in North America, and its growing international network ( there are still a number of sector competitors including: AEG Presents; Caesars Entertainment; Evenko; FKP Scorpio; I.M.P.; Kilimanjaro Live / DEAG; Ocesa / CIE; TEG Dainty / TEG Live etc.

Albeit economists have noted the oligopoly market structure, with a consolidating number of larger multi-territorial operators increasingly dominating the industry and deterring new entrants from competing for significant market share.

This live sector consolidation follows a decade-plus period of growth, with more venues, whether nightclubs, theatres, arenas, stadia, or greenfield sites, in more international territories, increasingly attracting sponsors and promotional partners for a growing number of events enthusiastically attended in greater numbers by consumers (rebadged as fans), who increasingly pay more, and more, to see their favourite Artists perform.

The Power of Live

© PwC Global Entertainment / Live Nation (2018) –

In the live music industry the Artist / Attraction / Star is the prime economic beneficiary of concerts, residencies or tours, albeit that promotion, marketing & ticketing distribution has historically been key to event monetisation.

So the incentivisation of talent has been a key obective for the live music industry – in order for others to then earn their margin (For further analysis of live music economics and net Artist earnings: ‘Putting The Band Back Together’ Jason Bazinet, Mark May, Kota Ezawa et al. (2018) –

As noted by the Wall Street Journal in December 2019, live revenues then accounted for some 75% of (gross) musician’s income (Anne Steele ‘Why Concert Tickets Are So Expensive. Over the past decade, the average ticket price for the top 100 North American tours has increased 55% to $94.83’ – and the immediate future seemed assured for the live industry.

In a triumphant, if not hubristic, Pollstar 2019 end-of-year report:

‘Perhaps the best way to sum up our industry’s phenomenal growth for this year, the past five years and for the decade would be to reference a song title by this year’s Artist of the Year, Pink.

Her ‘Beautiful Trauma Tour’ topped 2019’s Worldwide Tour Chart with $215.2 million dollars and she’s No. 16 on our Decade Chart, grossing a massive $626 million. As an artist who doesn’t mince words, she might say the many successes of this business are ‘Fuckin’ Perfect’ (

And then came the pandemic.


To be continued ….

In Other News: June’21 (1/5) ‘Bread & Circuses’

In Other News: June’21 (2/5) ‘How Big Was Big?’


In Other News: June’21 (2/5) ‘How Big Was Big?’

The Global (Recorded + Live) Music Industry (2019)

Music is vitally important to millions across many generations, providing not just an evolving soundtrack, but for many an inspiration to personal identity and self-worth, providing access to a shared experience, community, fun and good times – ‘sex n’drugs & rock n’roll’.

Historically the recorded and publishing sectors dominated the cultural perception and commercial reality of music industry revenues controlling content, marketing and release schedules, pricing, licensing, and distribution with touring plans typically scheduled to follow album release priorities and extend catalogue revenues.

However, commentators over recent years have highlighted the money shift that occurred following the advent of internet file-sharing, whereby a whole generation opted out of paying to consume recorded music. 

For a decade and more live revenues grew whilst recorded shrank until the scalable adoption of streaming whose technology (largely developed by former bit-torrent ‘poachers turned gamekeepers’) with slick UI, convenience and near-universal catalogues finally enabled some form of return to health for the record companies (leaving to one side for the moment the ongoing debate about the level of net music streaming royalties paid to individual artists) with approximately $20.2Bn total revenues in 2019.

Global Recorded Music Industry Revenues 2001-19 (US $Bn)

(c) IFPI

By comparison, the live music industry experienced significant and prolonged growth during the same period with PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) calculating that the total revenues of the live sector (ticket sales + event sponsorship) eventually exceeded that of recorded + publishing + sync.

Global Entertainment & Media Outlook 2011-2020

(c) PwC / Ovum

Within a later edition of its annual report ‘Global Entertainment & Media Outlook 2018-2022’ PwC then predicted that global ticket sales would grow from just over $22Bn in 2019 to more than $25Bn in 2023, whilst live music sponsorship would also grow from $5.91Bn to $6.46Bn over the same period, equating to a live music industry worth approximately $31.49bn in 2023 (

But concentrating on actuals as opposed to projections (with research collated from various public and private sources), in 2019 the combined global music industry (recorded + live) therefore equated to approximately $48Bn, of which recorded contributed $20Bn and live music $28Bn.

So how big was big? – $48Bn big! (2019)

So whilst the Pandemic meant recorded music consumption increased by approximately 12% (see the excellent Midia Research: the live industry has been effectively shutdown.

And to rebuild back to $28Bn is going to be far more difficult, and arguably take longer than desired by all participants.

To be continued ….


In Other News: June’21 (1/5) ‘Bread & Circuses’

Summer 2021 & the return of ’panem et circenses

As the live music industry nervously gears up for its return (‘The first to close, the last to reopen’), mindful of the evolving regulatory authorities’ response to COVID-19, vaccination roll-outs, levels and locations of any new Coronavirus variants, and their own internal organisational and fiscal preparedness, there are a number of questions relating to both the velocity and scale of any relaunch.

Not least because the hoped-for recovery may not be nearly as swift or as straightforward as desired following the last year+ of postponements, cancellations, and multiple lockdowns with politically-directed and oft inconsistent health guidelines.

As discussed in previous posts, the speed of any return, whether to the golden-era of 2019, or earlier, will depend upon a number of factors including: (international) Artist availability (Will domestic talent be able to exploit staggered market re-openings?); the accessibility of event and public liability insurance; the distressed events supplier services and logistics sectors; the need for local licensing authority agreements; and the cashflow impact of the COVID-19 shutdown(s) to event organisers – many of whom have utilised employee furloughs, redundancies, supplier contract terminations and event postponement (avoiding the need to offer consumer refunds for cancelled events) in a desperate attempt to survive.

The cash-deprived live sector, which historically has operated on thin-margins (typically requiring 70%+ paying capacity and then access to bar sales or other incremental revenues for event breakeven), cannot effectively operate with restrictive timeslots or socially-distanced reduced capacities that for example restaurants, galleries, museums, or theme parks have incorporated.

Some Promoter / Producers have already re-negotiated Artist fees requiring a greater level of shared risk, lower or no guarantees, applied downward pressure on show settlements and service supplier agreements to reflect the inherent risk of any relaunch with potentially smaller and/or nervous audiences coupled with the fragility of their own operations as they attempt to recoup the COVID-19 related costs of any newly onboarded corporate debt.

There is also the fiscal and operational reality that aside from restricted capacities some venues and event organisers may struggle to implement any required contactless technologies, increased ventilation, protective equipment for staff, and new health & safety signage whilst ensuring more regularised and intensive site cleaning is undertaken.

Additionally, many of the show reps, stage, sound & lighting crews, security, concierge, and concessions staff and all the other freelance, self-employed or zero hours employees who provide the oft invisible labour force that makes live music possible have all endured complicated, if not futile, efforts to attract furlough support, or collect unemployment benefits.

And so many may have been forced to take on other work, with employers reticent to re-hire too quickly. So the UK live events labour market does not yet show any rebound – ‘Lockdown restrictions continue to affect jobs and vacancies in two industry sectors more than others, with vacancies in arts, entertainment and recreation down 78.9% (18,000) from a year ago’ –

And then consumers attending events in 2021 (and beyond) may also be presented with a potentially emotionally dislocating event environment which includes: travelling to venues via reduced-capacity public transport with mandatory masks and the more anxious also carrying anti-viral wipes, tissues and disposable gloves; identity verification with temperature scans and/or health certification checks at event entrance; digital ticketing; contactless payments; the enforcement of some form of social-distancing within the event, with traffic-flows for access & egress to bars (dispensing single-portion pre-packaged F&B) and toilet facilities ideally with plentiful hand-sanitiser stations, all supported by onsite First-Aiders & Paramedics not at all exhausted after sixteen months on the COVID-19 front-line.

Will the ‘new normal’ therefore be a more restrained experience, with at least initially, fewer events and venues open, for a smaller than previous number of Artists able to perform (impacted by potentially lower show grosses as well as the added complications of travelling, especially for international artists) with lower than previous staffing levels, or will there be a ‘Roarin20s’ or ‘années folles’ of artistic and cultural dynamism with accelerated consumption?

Arguably it is more likely that the tremendous loss of life – over 152,000 (as of June 2021) in the UK alone – and the macroeconomic impact of the 2020-21 lockdown(s) will re-shape the existing codes of business behaviour, the level, and types of audience engagement as well as the commercial operations of the live music industry.

COVID-19 could prove to be a disruptive moment for live music in the same way that Napster impacted the recorded industry.


However, many Promoters have already claimed that there is an overwhelming demand for the return of live (Do you really expect them to say anything to the contrary?), from both Artists wanting to tour (Not least for economic self-necessity) and by Audiences wanting to re-embrace the live experience.

The daily announcement of new concerts and tours for 2022 and beyond is taken as proof-positive of the strength of this relaunch.

But closer examination of the actual ticket sales reveals many are previous bookings (from as far back as 2019) where customers have retained their tickets in nervous expectation of eventually attending, and new onsales are not consistently being embraced by audiences – in part because of the (over) supply exceeding demand for new events.

Promoters are trumpeting the fact that 2022 is ‘much stronger than usual’, with almost twice as many major touring artists on cycle than a typical year.

But are there more venues or twice as many weekend nights available next year? Further are audiences financially able and likely to attend twice as many events as in previous years?

Or will the glut of tour onsale announcements inevitably become the live music equivalent of ‘shipping platinum and returning gold’ i.e. can everything sell-out, or at least achieve breakeven?

Will the industry be able to adapt to and successfully integrate the new (temporary?) health protocols, and event capacity restrictions, whilst ensuring budgeted breakeven-plus (To aid their commercial relaunch and to pay down some of their newly acquired debt), and re-establish the formula of ticket pre-sales funding events several months in advance of the actual spectacle?

Or will Artists, and/or Rights Owners, and their Audiences continue to adopt new innovative platforms enabling remote but immersive connection, and monetisation, whether via gaming, livestreaming, AR, or VR, and, at least partially, sidestep the live experience?

To be continued …


UK Live Music: At A Cliff Edge – 170K Job Losses By End-of-Year

Proud to announce the release today of the ‘UK Live Music: At A Cliff Edge’ report produced in conjunction with Chris Carey ( on behalf of LIVE (Live Music Industry Venues & Entertainment).

The live music industry has been devasted by the impact of COVID-19 with the enforced shutdown of concerts, festivals and tours, the suspension of furlough support, little sector-specific support, major operators forced to make redundant hundreds at a time, and thousands of self-employed, freelancers and zero-hours staff losing their livelihoods.

Report findings include:

In 2019 live music supported 210,000 full-time equivalent roles, as well as tens of thousands of freelancers & contributed £4.5 billion to the UK economy

In 2020, revenue in the live music business will fall by 81%, and revenues have been close to zero since March

50% of permanent roles will be lost by the end of the year while temporary and freelance roles have already been decimated, totalling 170,000 job losses across the sector by year-end

Download the report here:


Op-Ed: Who Will Fill Our Arenas Next?

Noted within the Ticketing Business News (, which artists and events post-COVID will fill the global arena network?



Farewell to the Top 40: Who will fill our arenas next?

Posted by TheTicketingBusiness

5th August 2020

Image credit @StateFarmStdm


An eventual return to large-scale international live touring in 2021/22 is obviously subject to access to an effective vaccine(s).

Alongside which is the availability of reasonably-priced event and public liability insurance, the re-contracting of touring logistics (event production, equipment and crew – all typically freelance or self-employed and some of whom may not have fiscally survived the COVID-19 interregnum), enhanced Health & Safety protocols with increased requirements for audience identification and monitoring leading to potentially reduced event capacities, and the new show deals potentially exposing artists to greater levels of risk with low-or-no guarantees, will all combine to usher in a new era of live entertainment.

For the live touring sector there has long been some concern regarding the aging group of heritage acts and stadium rockstars – Aerosmith, Billy Joel, Bruce Springsteen, Elton John, Roger Waters, Rolling Stones, The Who etc. as ‘Saint Death’ inevitably takes hostages.

For concert promoters and festival organisers which of the younger generation would combine that mass market appeal, back catalogue and the desire to tour with the necessary theatrical flair for album-based multi-hour spectaculars?


Whilst they are generally younger than the artists who first came to popular acclaim in the sixties and seventies, are Coldplay, The Killers, Madonna, Metallica, Pink!, Red Hot Chili Peppers, TakeThat or U2 going to commit to the next twenty-to-thirty years with the rigours of touring, and also have a global audience?

Perhaps the new generation of hip hop / rap / dance crossover: Ariana Grande, Beyonce, Chance The Rapper, Drake, Eminem, JayZ, Justin Timberlake, Kanye West, or Usher with the growing internationalisation of tours expanding into China & the Pacific Rim, South America, and eventually Africa will become the predominate touring culture?

This does not mean that the increasingly niche rock market goes away, it just exists alongside Classical, Jazz, Opera and other ossified musical art forms – supported by historical government funding, advertorial media and the slow-moving record business.

Essentially the global live sector is evolving from white rock’n’roll, to a more contemporary and diverse RnB sound with artists that have also attracted new and different audiences – younger, more culturally diverse, socially engaged via smart phones, and experientially-orientated (as the cost of ownership is typically beyond them with housing, transportation & workspaces via subscription – AirBnb, Lime Scooters, Lyft, Uber, WeWork etc.).


The new live music audiences are young, urban and internationalist. They are working longer hours with relatively lower disposable personal income. The digitalisation of content means they experience music via their phones, on the move, or in bars and clubs – the traditional distribution channels of radio, billboard & print has been disrupted.  The new consumers stream music but typically don’t buy the physical product. They applaud individual tunes but don’t need to appreciate longer format releases.

To monetise this audience international tour promoters will target the growing global network of arenas (10k+ capacity) in the world’s top 200 capital cities. Whereas the larger theatres are usually only 3K-5K and are typically orientated towards the performing arts and theatre sector, and so the architecture and facilities tend to reflect those core civic constituencies and associated cultural and service requirement i.e. Founder & Sponsor Hospitality, Orchestra Pits, Acoustic Baffling & signature Architectural design. These lower capacity venues also typically don’t provide sufficient event ticketing ROI to incentivise the touring talent and their international event producers.

Arenas provide a controlled environment where the architecture and operations of the event space have been highly commoditised and producers everywhere know how to create, organise, and execute successfully. Load-In/Out, Stage Width & Access, Hang-Points & Overhead Clearance, Power Supply, Dressing Rooms, Parking and VIP Meet’n’Greet Facilities are all increasingly standardized within climate-controlled, concrete concourses and padded seats enabling the bling-conscious middle-class of Bangalore, Bogota or Bucharest to all experience the latest concert, theatrical or movie experience.


So, post-COVID whilst there will be fewer blockbuster stadium tours by aging artists celebrating their forty-year careers, it is likely that – because of the new economic and hygiene constraints but aided by the growth of arenas – there will be many more touring artists, albeit possibly only enjoying a four-year career reflecting their pop career, hit-tune, TV spectacular background, or other fleeting breakthrough-moment.


For further details please review at Ticketing Business News (




Live Nation Entertainment Has Received Approx. $60M In COVID-19 Payroll State Aid, Thus Far


Noted within the Live Nation Entertainment Inc. Q2 2020 Results:

Cost and Cash Management Programs

Given the uncertainty associated with the duration of current conditions globally, we have implemented a number of initiatives to reduce fixed costs and conserve cash. As part of these cost reduction efforts, we have implemented salary reductions for most of our employees, with salaries for senior executives reduced by up to 50%. Additional cost reduction efforts include hiring freezes, reduction in the use of contractors, rent re-negotiations, furloughs, and reduction or elimination of other discretionary spending, including, among other things, travel and entertainment, repairs and maintenance, and marketing.

We are also making full use of government support programs globally. In most European and Asian markets, including the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, France, Spain and Australia, there are robust payroll support programs to mitigate a substantial portion of employee costs. Additionally, in the United States, we have filed for payroll support under the Employee Retention Credit program established as part of the 2020 CARES Act and expect to receive additional support in the second half of the year. Finally, the CARES Act also provides for deferred payment of the employer portion of social security taxes through the end of 2020, with 50% of the deferred amount due December 31, 2021 and the remaining 50% due December 31, 2022.

Form 10-Q (, Page 12.


The company’s $432 million adjusted operating income (AOI) loss for the quarter was driven primarily by operational fixed costs of approximately $334 million, inclusive of approximately $60 million in benefits from various government payroll funding programs.

Live Nation Entertainment, Supplemental Operational & Financial Information (, Page 1.





US Ticket Resale Borrows $77.5M

Noted within the Ticketing Business News ( a number of US ticket resale companies have borrowed $77.5M from the Government Paycheck Protection Program (PPP), as of July 2020.

The US secondary ticketing sector is borrowing up to $77.5m via the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) to remain afloat amid the COVID-19 pandemic, which has brought the live events industry to a complete standstill for four months ……’


Until there are new onsales for new events, at scale, ticket retail companies are living on borrowed time, and for postponed events on consumers cash.